Comunicado de CORA sobre la situación que están viviendo las familias en espera de una adopción en Etiopía

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En las asociaciones pertenecientes a CORA llevamos tiempo recibiendo quejas de familias que tienen abierto un proceso de adopción en Etiopía. Varios Organismos Acreditados (ECAIS) están solicitando a las familias cantidades entre 7000€ y 13000€ para continuar con sus procesos en dicho país. Estas cantidades no están estipuladas en sus contratos y en algún caso se intentan justificar como “mantenimiento del menor”.

 Desde hace tiempo venimos denunciando las irregularidades en Etiopía, pero en este caso la irregularidad se da aquí en España. Los Organismos Acreditados, en tanto que son entidades acreditadas por las autoridades competentes, están obligadas a respetar las tarifas aprobadas por estas últimas. No es admisible por tanto que exijan a las familias pagos adicionales que no estaban contemplados en los contratos que en su día fueron firmados.

 La Conferencia de la Haya, a través de la publicación Acreditación y organismos acreditados para la adopción: Principios generales y Guía de Buenas Prácticas No 2, publicada en 2013, indica que “es necesario distinguir estos pagos de los costes de la adopción”, que en España deben ser expresamente aprobados por la autoridad que acredita a las Ecais. En sus págs. 92-93, la guía señala:

 “las contribuciones exigidas por el organismo acreditado a los futuros padres adoptivos (...) pueden ser para determinadas instituciones (por ej., para los costes de cuidado del niño), o para proyectos de cooperación del organismo acreditado en el Estado de origen. (...) El pago no constituye necesariamente una obligación legal, y los organismos acreditados pueden presentar la petición en términos de ‘contribución encarecidamente recomendada’, pero en la práctica es ‘obligatoria’ para los futuros padres adoptivos en la medida que su solicitud no será tratada si no se hace el pago”.

 La guía desalienta estos “pagos directos a las instituciones debido a los posibles dilemas éticos vinculados con los mismos” (p. 93) y señala que

 “Durante el procedimiento de adopción no se deberían solicitar donaciones ni a los organismos acreditados, ni a los futuros padres adoptivos. De este modo, se evita que las donaciones influyan en la asignación de los niños. Desafortunadamente, a veces, estas “donaciones” son exigidas en una etapa avanzada del procedimiento de adopción por una persona en la institución o por un funcionario, y los donantes pueden sentir que deben pagar para que su adopción avance. Esta práctica es muy poco ética y debería ser ilícita”. (p. 94)

 Aún cuando Etiopía no ha ratificado el Convenio de La Haya sobre adopción internacional –cuyos principios están pensados para garantizar que las adopciones se realizan en el interés superior de los niños–, España, como país firmante y comprometido en la lucha contra el tráfico de niños, no debería admitir en las tramitaciones prácticas que ponen en peligro la legitimidad y transparencia de los procesos de adopción.

 Estos hechos irregulares vienen a confirmar las sospechas que se vienen detectando desde hace años sobre la legalidad de los procedimientos de adopción en Etiopía, y que a nuestro entender aconsejan cerrar la tramitación de adopciones en este país en tanto no se acredite la existencia de las garantías necesarias.

 Desde la Federación CORA y desde todas las asociaciones que la conforman, queremos expresar nuestro apoyo a todas las familias que se están encontrado con estas solicitudes de dinero. También queremos pedirles que lo pongan en conocimiento de sus administraciones y que exijan a estas que hagan lo necesario para que se erradiquen estas malas prácticas. Así mismo, les recomendamos que las denuncien también ante la Oficial Legal Principal de la Conferencia de la Haya, con la que pueden contactar a través de la siguiente dirección de correo electrónico, lmm@hcch.net o bien secretariat@hcch.net.

 Martes 15, de marzo de 2016